Testicular cancer occurs when cells that are not normal grow out of control in the testicles (testes). It’s highly curable, especially when found early. The testes are the two male sex organs that make and store sperm. They are located in a pouch below the penis called the scrotum. The testes also make the hormone testosterone.
Testicular cancer is most common among white males. It’s not common in men of African or Asian background. Although rare, testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men between the ages of 20 and 34. Experts don't know what causes testicular cancer, but some problems may increase your chances of getting it.
Risk factors may include having a testicle that has not dropped down into the scrotum from the belly. This is called an undescended testicle. Having Klinefelter syndrome, a genetic problem that affects males, is another potential risk factor. Normally, males have one X and one Y chromosome. Males with Klinefelter syndrome have at least two X chromosomes and, in rare cases, as many as three or four. Additionally, a family history of testicular cancer may increase your risk of having the disease. It's important to note, however, that most men who get testicular cancer don't have any risk factors.